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Purdue OWL Citation Resources
Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
Giving Credit to Others
When you use someone else's words, work, thoughts, and/or ideas, you need to give the person credit. It doesn't matter whether you quote the person word-for-word or put it in your own words (paraphrase), you need to acknowledge where the words, work, thought, or idea originated. Otherwise, you are passing it off as your own.
NoodleTools (Organize Research & Citation Tool)
Create bibliographies, works cited, reference lists, to-do lists, notecards, outlines, and more!
In-Text and Parenthetical Citations
Frequently Asked Questions (MLA)
Purdue Online Writing Lab
Record Bibliographic Information
Don't forget to record the following for each source you use:
- Title of article, chapter, film, webpage
- Page number
- Name of magazine, newspaper, journal, book, website
- Publication date
- Name of subscription database (if used)
- Format (web, print)
- Date of access (if found online)
APA (American Psychological Association)
American Psychological Association (APA) style is most often used in the sciences and social sciences.
CMS (Chicago Manual of Style)
The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) is most often used for history courses.
MLA (Modern Language Association)
Modern Language Association (MLA) style is most often used in the humanities, arts, and literature. MLA Handbook, 8th ed.